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Terminos de Lentes y Objetivos

Distancia focal: es la distancia entre el plano de la imagen y el plano de la óptica. Por ejemplo, si manejamos un objetivo de distancia focal entre 18 y 55mm, eso significa que cubre distancias focales que van de la de 18mm (en un encuadre relativamente amplio) hasta la de 55mm que sería una especie de zoom que nos acercaría al sujeto fotografiado pero mostrando una parte más reducida de la escena a fotografiar.

Apertura máxima: cada vez que pulsamos el disparador de la cámara (para tomar la fotografía), el objetivo tiene un diafragma que normalmente está cerrado y que a la hora de disparar la foto se abre y se cierra (cómo una cortina). La apertura máxima la apertura máxima que tiene el diafragma. Cuanto mayor sea la apertura máxima, más luz el objetivo es capaz de captar. Se hace referencia a la apertura máxima con el valor f/ de modo que cuanto más reducido sea este valor (por ejemplo f/2.8) mayor será la apertura máxima.

AF/MF: Enfoque automático/enfoque manual.


Terminología de lentes y objetivos Nikon:

DC (Defocus Control): control del desenfoque mediante el ajuste de las aberraciones esféricas.

Aberraciones Esféricas: es un defecto de los espejos y las lentes en el que los rayos de luz que inciden paralelamente al eje óptico.
CRC (Close-Range Correction): ayuda a obtener mayor calidad en objetivos, por ej.  ojo de pez y gran angular.
DX Nikkor: objetivo optimizado para cámaras con sensor pequeño.
ED: cristal de dispersión extrabaja. Ofrece mayor nitidez y mejores colores mediante la corrección del azul y el rojo.
IF: enfoque interno, por lo que la longitud del objetivo no cambia.
Marco: optimizado para fotografía marco (muy de cerca, por ej.  flores, insectos, etc).
G: apertura controlada desde por el cuerpo de la cámara.
VR: tecnología propia de Nikon para reducir las vibraciones a la hora de disparar la foto.
PC-E: control de perspectiva para fotografía de arquitectura.
RF: enfoque posterior para una mayor suavidad de enfoque automático.
Silent Wave Motor: enfoque automático silencioso.


Terminología de lentes y objetivos Canon:

EF: enfoque electrónico. Este tipo de objetivos valen para todo el rango de cámaras réflex EOS de Canon.
EF-S: parecido al superior pero únicamente funciona con cámaras cuyo sensor sea APS-C (por ej.: 40D; 50D; 300D; 450D; 500D).
USM: motor de enfoque automático ultrasónico.
DO: óptica difractiva, una tecnología que permite producir objetivos con longitudes físicas más pequeñas.
TS-E: lentes utilizadas para corregir la perspectiva. Generalmente se utilizan en fotografía de arquitectura para alterar puntos de fuga y profundidades de campo.
L Lens (Lente L): objetivos profesionales de Canon con calidad óptica superior. Normalmente son de color blanco con un aro rojo rodeándolos.
MP-E: lente Macro electrónico. Son objetivos para fotografías macro con control electrónico de apertura.
IS: estabilización de imagen, es el dispositivo encargado de reducir las vibraciones en la captura de una imagen cuando en la toma se producen movimientos no deseados.


Terminología de lentes y objetivos Sigma:

EX: lentes profesionales de Sigma.
DG: lentes para cámaras de cuerpo completo (no SLR Digital).
DC: para cámaras con cuerpo APS-C.
ASP: lente asférica. es una lente cuya superficie de curvatura no forma parte de una esfera y cuyo fin es eliminar la aberración esférica.
APO: lente apocromática. Exclusiva de Sigma y cumple con la función de corregir aberraciones cromáticas.
OS: estabilización Óptica.
HSM: silenciador del enfoque automático.
RF: enfoque posterior.
IF: enfoque interno de modo que la longitud física de la lente se queda fija reduciendo  movimientos y vibraciones.
DF: enfoque dual. No gira durante el enfoque automático.


Terminología de lentes y objetivos Tamron:

ASL: lente Asphérica.
AD: reducción de aberración cromática.
Di: son lentes que funcionan únicamente con cámaras cuyo sensor es grande (del tamaño de la película de 35 mm).
Di II: para cámaras con sensores pequeños (como el APS-C por ejemplo).
IF: enfoque interno.
LD: reducción de aberraciones cromáticas.
Macro: para fotografía Macro.
SP: lente de rendimiento superior. Simplemente.
XR: lente con un cristal de refracción que ayuda a obtener mejores resultados ópticos.
VC: control de vibración.

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Fabrica de Lentes Leica:

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Como se fabrican los lentes / objetivos para fotografía:

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