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9Mar/1168

Sensor de imagen

El sensor de imagen es el elemento de una cámara fotográfica digital que capta la luz que compone la fotografía. Se trata de un chip formado por millones de componentes sensibles a la luz que al ser expuestos forman la imagen fotográfica.

Aplicación

En la fotografía digital el sensor electrónico es el equivalente del carrete fotográfico convencional. El sensor es una matriz de elementos fotosensibles que funciona convirtiendo la luz que capta en señales eléctricas que pueden recogerse, medirse y convertirse en una representación electrónica del patrón global de iluminación que llegó al sensor. Finalmente, el fichero informático que almacena ese patrón puede ser representado en una pantalla (o en papel fotográfico realizando ciertos procesos) de modo que nuestros ojos lo perciban como una imagen.


Componentes

Cada uno de los elementos fotosensibles del sensor se denomina pixel (picture element). El número de píxeles del sensor se suele medir en millones de píxeles (o megapíxeles, Mpx). De forma general se puede decir que mayores números indican la posibilidad de imprimir (o visualizar) fotos a tamaños más grandes con pérdidas de calidad menores. Una resolución de 2Mpx se suele considerar la mínima para la impresión de fotografías a tamaño 10x15cm. Una resolución de 3Mpx permite imprimir normalmente fotografías a tamaño 20x25cm.

Otro factor importante con respecto al sensor es el tamaño y forma del mismo. Un sensor grande que contenga un número relativamente pequeño de píxeles debería tener una gran área por píxel; y viceversa: un sensor pequeño con el mismo número de píxeles tendrá una reducida área por píxel. Los píxeles mayores tienden a generar una mejor calidad de imagen y una mayor sensibilidad.

La forma del sensor suele ser rectangular y la proporción entre alto y ancho del sensor también es importante ya que las fotografías finalmente obtenidas con la cámara suelen ser con formato 4/3 y si el sensor no es 4/3 está claro que las imágenes captadas han de ser procesadas digitalmente para generar una imagen con esas proporciones con el riesgo que ello conlleva de introducir imperfecciones.

Dado que la forma natural de la visión del ser humano se acerca más al formato 3/2 que al 4/3 (típico de televisores ya antiguos), las grandes marcas, como Nikon o Sigma, fabrican los sensores en el formato 3/2, cuyo ratio es de 1,5.
De lo anteriormente citado se puede deducir que el mejor sensor es grande, y con un gran número de píxeles. En la práctica esto no es siempre cierto porque afecta sensiblemente al tamaño global de la cámara y a su precio.

Tecnología

En cuanto a la tecnología de los sensores, las más extendidas actualmente son:

  • Sensor CCD, es el más extendido tanto en fotografía como en video.
  • Sensor SuperCCD, es el más extendido tanto en fotografía como en video.
  • Sensor CMOS, que va ganando peso gracias a su menor consumo de energía y su menor coste de fabricación.
  • Foveon X3 a diferencia de los anteriores no realiza interpolación de los colores para la obtención de la imagen.

 

Además, junto a los cuatro tipos de sensores mencionados, algunas marcas han optado por aportar nuevas aproximaciones
Éste es el caso de Sony y su CCD RGBE. La modificación, en este caso, se produce en el filtro Bayer colocado delante del sensor. En lugar de apostar por la clásica combinación de filtros rojos, verdes y azules -con predominancia de los verdes por ser el ojo humano más sensible a este color-, los ingenieros de la compañía han ajustado más este parámetro y han llegado a la conclusión de que nuestra vista percibe un tipo concreto de verde: el esmeralda. Así, este filtro Bayer modificado contiene una mitad de píxeles verdes filtrados específicamente para el verde esmeralda.
Otra variación sería el chip sensor de Kodak que sustituye los patrones básicos rojo, verde y azul por cian, magenta y amarillo. En efecto, mientras otros sensores toman una imagen 'positiva' éstos graban negativos digitales utilizando colores secundarios en lugar de primarios (aunque luego los datos son convertidos a RGB para mantener la compatibilidad con el resto del mercado). La ventaja de usar estas componentes secundarias es que esos colores contienen mayores factores de transmisión que los colores primarios complementarios lo cual redunda en una mayor sensibilidad en ciertas circunstancias (no en todas).

 

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